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碧桂园帮扶贫困县返乡青年 进清华园开阔眼界学本领

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 非法占用海域 黄骅港综保区二期被罚8.46亿元 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

30省房价收入比排行 各地真实购房难度大起底

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

Télécom Business School in France and Prague’s University of Economics have the most gender-balanced faculty, with exactly 50 per cent women, while Switzerland’s University of Zurich is the least balanced, with only 9 per cent. Switzerland’s IMD has the most international faculty, with 94 per cent of them from overseas, while faculty at Politecnico di Milano School of Management are all Italian.
The Irish. They sing, dance, drink and sing some more. The lads were singing lullabies to a little baby in Bordeaux to try and get it to go to sleep.
Harvard Business School, London Business School (LBS) and MIT Sloan School of Management, three of the MBA ranking’s longstanding heavyweights, all lost ground to their competitors. Harvard drops two places to fourth, the first time in nine years that the Boston school has been outside the top three. London Business School falls three places to sixth, its lowest position in 14 years. MIT Sloan School of Management falls to 13th place, the first time in 10 years that it has been outside the top 10.
对于上周有媒体称三星和黑莓正在进行收购洽淡的报道,两家公司都迅速予以否认。但全球最大的智能手机厂商为何愿意付出传闻中的75亿美元高价,来收购一家盛年不再的加拿大技术公司呢?答案是:因为后者持有丰富的知识产权——尤其是在前景光明的安全创新领域。
但“平均”讲的是以前的情况,不是未来的事实。乐观言论不会让牛市重启,新的警告声音也不会刺破旧的泡沫。周期有自己的生命,该上行的时候上行,该下行的时候下行。这是很自然的事情。
Attractions: Paradise within reach.
Although the original book got 7.9 out of 10 on Douban, the TV version only got 5 for its poor adaptation.

他补充说道:“我很兴奋能有机会重返中国,并享受这个国家的文化以及把NBA现场比赛的激动直接带给中国球迷。”
若原油供应严重中断,仍可能会推高油价,但潜在的供应过剩会降低这种可能性。Saxo Bank的大宗商品策略部门主管汉森(Ole Hansen)说,新兴市场的需求曾使得供应如此紧张,因而任何一次供应中断都造成了油价的大幅波动。
在经过一段漫长而艰辛的竞选活动后,美国当地时间11月6日,美国总统奥巴马战胜了共和党候选人罗姆尼,胜出2012美国总统大选成功连任,将迎来执政白宫的第二个任期。
"In ancient times, Kucha was called Qiuci in Chinese literature. It was a powerful city-state in the oasis of the Western Frontiers" the researchers wrote.
她自言自语道,别再来这么一回了,太吓人了。

Footnotes

  • 建材建筑行业周报:业绩支撑 先下手为强
  • 在360000个网红账号中,女性达到74%。而87.8%的网红年龄都在17-33岁之间,89%的网红接受过高等教育。

第六步 找到你的“花生”
不过,日本央行(BoJ)仍决定不加大货币政策刺激力度。该行指出,工业产出是日本经济疲软的领域之一。当然,就业市场等日本经济的其他领域,表现要好得多。
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当然,也有一些不那么乐观的消息。随着油价趋稳并随后下跌后,电动汽车的销量马上就开始受到拖累。铃木汽车(Suzuki)在美国市场上日渐式微,同时沃尔沃(Volvo)看起来也还是无力回天。中国——现在已是全球最大的汽车市场——的销售开始放缓,而欧洲依然在衰退中泥足深陷,汽车业产能过剩的根本性问题还是无法解决。
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或许是作为回应,在2017年初,中国媒体监管机构在报道票房数据时悄然开始计入在线票务公司收取的服务费。

北京家居建材商家启动“开年大促”销

References

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